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 #14 - PEARL HARBOR raid - training time

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Sidnei E. Maneta
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PostSubject: #14 - PEARL HARBOR raid - training time   Tue Nov 13, 2012 11:14 am



On 10 April 1941, all carriers' aircraft tail codes were changed when the Japanese Navy created the First Air Fleet.
This combined the first carrier division (Akagi and Kaga), second carrier division (Soryu and Hiryu),
third carrier division (Hosho), fourth carrier division (Ryujo and later Shoho) and fifth carrier division (Shokaku and Zuikaku).
In August 1941 intensive training of the designated air groups was commenced. Emphasis was placed on shallow water
torpedo drops, on horizontal and dive bombing, and on strafing tactics. All the airplanes of six carriers were assembled
in several aerodromes at Kyushu, and crews trained hard every day, without rest. There were night attack
training sessions, too.
Akagi/Kaga KATEs were at Kagoshima Field. Soryu/Hiryu KATEs were at Izumi Field, Shokaku/Zuikaku KATEs were at
Usa Field, Akagi/Kaga VALs were at Tomitaka Field, Soryu/Hiryu VALs were at Kasanohara Field, Shokaku/Zuikaku VALs
were at Oita Field, Zeros trained at Omura, Oita and Saeki Fields.
INFO CREDIT: David Aiken.


AI-152 was flown by a wingman of carrier Akagi.


Commander Minoru Genda born in 1904. With Admiral Onishi, Genda wrote the study and constructed a strategy of
ten main points, most of which were incorporated into the final plan for the attack at Pearl Harbor. He survived the war.
After the creation of the Japan Self Defense Forces, he served in the Air Self Defense Force, eventually rising to the
rank of full general. After retirement from the military, Genda entered into politics, serving four terms in the
Upper House of Councilors. He died in 1989.


AI-303 was flown by a wingman of carrier Akagi.
COLOR PROFILE CREDIT: Magazine IJN Carrier Vessel AKAGI & AIRCRAFT, Model Art #756, 156 pages, 9/2008 issue.


AI-307 was flown by a wingman of carrier Akagi.
COLOR PROFILE CREDIT:  book SAMOURAÏ SUR PORTE-AVIONS Les groupes embarqués japonais et leurs porte-avions
(1922-1944) by Michel Ledet


AI-308 was flown by a wingman of carrier Akagi.
COLOR PROFILE CREDIT: Magazine IJN Carrier Vessel AKAGI & AIRCRAFT, Model Art #756, 156 pages, 9/2008 issue.


AI-308 photo #1
PHOTO CREDIT: Magazine IJN Carrier Vessel AKAGI & AIRCRAFT, Model Art #756, 156 pages, 9/2008 issue.


AII-232 was flown by a wingman. Crew unknown.


Zeros were already in a factory finish, delivered in one of the colors series called by Japanese Navy terms as
M0 - Hairyokushoku (translated gray-green", greenish gray) with a red "Iron Oxide" primer.
INFO CREDIT: http://www.pearlharborattacked.com + R. Watanabe, D. Aiken, and M. Asano.


Lt. Fusata Iida’s Zero photo #1
Lt Iida enroute from the factory to deliver his A6M2 model 11 to China in early 1941. Mount Fuji holds a dear
place in Japanese hearts. Jiro Horikoshi, the Zero designer, noted that the Prototype Zero was in "hairyokushoku"
[which means gray-GREEN]. This color was used in the production of the Zero 11 and Zero 21. It was highly affected
by ultraviolet light. Zeros in China and the Philippines show that the cockpit canvas covers protected the "hairyokushoku"
paint, but areas not covered chalked quickly to a GRAY.
INFO CREDIT: Mr. David Aiken.  


AI-205 was flown by a wingman. Crew unknown.
This factory-fresh Aichi D3A1 dive bomber was attached to Akagi carrier combat group, May 1941.


AI-205 photo #1
These factory-fresh Aichi D3A1 dive bombers were attached to Akagi carrier combat group, May 1941


AI-208 was flown by a wingman, June, 1941.
At that moment, these Vals and Kates were in natural metal finished (NMF), with silver painted on the fabric surfaces.
Most had red lacquer tails and white code numbers.


AI-208 photo #1
Damaged during a training flight, Aichi D3A1 coded AI-208 of the Akagi carrier, May 1941.
PHOTO and INFO CREDIT: Aichi D3A1, Nakajima B5N2, book 145, by Seweryn Fleischer and Zygmunt Szeremeta.


AII2-14 was flown by a wingman during training time. Crew unknown.
A prewar photo shows a RED TAIL and the unique location of the 'dash' between the 2 and 14.
INFO CREDIT: Mr. David Aiken.


AII-234 was flown by a wingman. Crew unknown.


AII-234 photo
AII-234 was flown by a wingman. Crew unknown. PHOTO CREDIT: FAOW # 33 - D3A1 - page 29.


AII-243 was flown by a wingman. Crew unknown.


This is AII-250 on first receipt to Kaga prior to application of command marks.
Hikotaicho Saburo Makino and PO1c Yukio Nagamine were the assigned crew at this moment.
INFO CREDIT: "Shinjuwan no 101 Ki" by H. Yoshimura, M. Asano and D. Aiken, Magazine REPURIKA 7/92.


Yukio Nagamine (1-Hiso) stands in front of his bird of KAGA with tail number 250 (All-250).
Nagamine was once the radioman for Hikotaicho Saburo Makino, but illness caused his replacement.
INFO CREDIT: Magazine REPURIKA 7/92 - by H. Yoshimura, M. Asano and D. Aiken.


AII-272 was flown by a wingman. Crew unknown.


In his book, MIDWAY: THE BATTLE THAT DOOMED JAPAN, Fuchida detailed that the back of his plane had red and
yellow stripes...we now know that this referenced a single red "carrier identification" stripe and three yellow hikotaicho stripes.
In 1966, Dr Michael Hawkins wrote a B5N monograph for the Profile series in which the artist used raw notes
from Fuchida that his plane was the number "301" plane, and came up with a silver/natural metal finish plane with red
and yellow horizontal stripes across the vertical surfaces. The B5N profile In 1967, Chuck Graham illustrated Al Makiel's article for IPMS-USA a page on Japanese aircraft "at Pearl Harbor" including an dotted outline of AI-301 based on movie
film found at the US National Archives. So the markings at select stages may be determined - like peeling away layers
of an onion. AI-301 had a pre-war scheme of natural metal with red tail that had three yellow command stripes and a
red vertical "carrier" stripe.
INFO CREDIT: www.pearlharborattacked.com


BI-259 was flown by a wingman of carrier Soryu, October, 1941. Crew unknown.


BI-259 was flown by a wingman of carrier Soryu, October, 1941. Crew unknown.
PHOTO CREDIT: FAOW # 33 - D3A1 - page 32.


BII-214 was flown by a wingman of carrier IJN Hiryu.
This plane was shot down over Pearl Harbor.


An Aichi D3A1 coded BII-214 of the Hiryu carrier in flight over Sakura-Jima, summer 1941.
PHOTO and INFO CREDIT:  Aichi D3A1, Nakajima B5N2, book 145, by Seweryn Fleischer and Zygmunt Szeremeta.
BII-214 was shot down on 7 Dec 1941.


In the mid-1970s, Don Bratt interviewed Fuchida for more details to discover that AI-301 was kept "gleaming" during
training to let his men know of his location in the air, yet en route to Hawaii AI-301 was camouflaged to hide the plane
from American pursuit. The commanding info on the vertical surfaces was retained to keep his aviators informed of his presence. The plane was painted, IF WE BELIEVE FUCHIDA: "en route to Hawaii" with SEMI-GLOSS green upper surface camouflage. The TRAINING numbers on the wing's undersurface conform to PRE-war use were black and the undersurface
is painted with the same GLOSS Gray-GREEN viewed on Akagi VALs.....and the painting of the plane was accomplished NOT "enroute", but where the landing base paint shops sprayed the plane...with gray-GREEN, then the dark green upper surface.
INFO CREDIT: www.pearlharborattacked.com


AI-208 was flown by PO3c Tokuji Iizuka during training.
In October 1941, the orders came down for Vals and Kates of the Kido Butai to receive camouflage.
One of the "M" series of colors called "hairyokushoku" [translated "gray-green", greenish gray] was used
on so many Japanese WWII aircraft, was used on all Zeros at Pearl Harbor, but also was applied to select Akagi's Vals
and Kates and Kaga's Kates.
INFO CREDIT: David Aiken.


AI-208 photo #1
This prewar photo shows "in progress" painting such as breaks in stencil.
AI-208 is gleaming in its new M1 paint, this Akagi D3A sports a gun camera on its right wing to aid in the pre-war
training. The D3As on the 5th CV Division were painted I3. Notice the unique Akagi spat marking has yet to be painted.
INFO CREDIT: Mr. David Aiken.


AII-252 was flown by a wingman. Crew unknown.


Aichi D3A1 coded AII-252 of the Kaga carrier. June 1941.
PHOTO AND INFO CREDIT: Aichi D3A1, Nakajima B5N2, book 145, by Seweryn Fleischer and Zygmunt Szeremeta.
During training time, Aichi D3A1 dive bombers (later called VAL) had initially a bombing score at 10 percent.
Constant practice with dives in at an angle of 50 to 60 degrees and releases of their bombs on the target at an altitude
of 400 meters scores rose steadily to 80 percent. Mitsubishi A6M2s fighters were busy with dogfighting exercises and
strafing run practice. Three-seat attack bombers (Nakajima B5N2s) had the exercise of level bombing in formation at
the height of 3,000 meters and of torpedo bombing at extremely low level. Torpedo planes flew every day over
Kagoshima City, almost touching the rooftops and having the practice of dropping torpedoes at low altitude.


BI-323, a Model 3 from the Soryu in October 1941. At this time the fleet strike force was involved with intense training
for the upcoming Pearl Harbor operation. The color is overall I3. Later, Soryu and Hiryu B5N2 applied a thinner green
color on upper surface.
INFO CREDIT: Mr. David Aiken.


BI-323 photo #1
BI-323 from the Soryu while in training for the Pearl Harbor attack during October and November 1941.

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